Published Technical Papers

Our extensive list of published technical papers exhibits industry-leading research and engineering.

Digimarc® Barcode

Watermarking Spot Colors in Packaging

A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry.

View the Paper

Scanning-Time Evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS).

View the Paper

Automation and Workflow Considerations for Embedding Digimarc Barcodes at Scale

This paper presents a description and an analysis of the workflow implemented by Digimarc to deploy the Digimarc Barcode at scale. An overview of the tools created and lessons learned during the introduction of technology to the market are provided.

View the Paper

Digimarc® Discover and Mobile Applications

Digimarc Discover on Google Glass

This paper reports on the implementation of the Digimarc Discover Platform on Google Glass, enabling the reading of a watermark embedded in a printed material or audio.

View the Paper

Signal Rich Art: Enabling the Vision of Ubiquitous Computing

Advances in networking and mobile computing are converging with digital watermarking technology to realize the vision of Ubiquitous Computing, wherein mobile devices can sense, understand, and interact with their environments.

View the Paper

Middleware for Mobile Discovery

An emerging class of “Mobile Discovery” applications uses the camera and microphones on mobile devices to enable the recognition and identification of media and physical objects.

View the Paper

Assessment of Camera Phone Distortion and Implications for Watermarking

In this paper, the distortion introduced by cameras of smart phones such as iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS is measured and quantified.

View the Paper

Commercial Applications

Smart Images Using Digital Watermarking Technology

A Smart Image is a digital or physical image that contains a digital watermark, which leads to further information about the image content via the Internet, communicates ownership rights and the procedure for obtaining usage rights, facilitates commerce, or instructs and controls other computer software or hardware.

View the Paper

Practical Challenges for Digital Watermarking Applications

Challenges include design considerations, requirements analysis, choice of watermarking techniques, speed, robustness and the tradeoffs involved.

View the Paper

Optimized Selection of Benchmark Test Parameters for Image Watermark Algorithms

With the growing commercialization of watermarking techniques in various application scenarios it has become increasingly important to quantify the performance of watermarking products.

View the Paper

Using Digital Watermarks with Image Signatures to Mitigate the Threat of the Copy Attack

In some applications, the utility of an image watermarking system is greatly reduced if an attacker is able to extract a watermark from a marked image and re-embed it into an unmarked image.

View the Paper

Engineering Concerns in Commercial Watermarking

This article explores some of the engineering and design considerations for a commercial implementation of watermarking technology.

View the Paper

Bridging Printed Media

This paper introduces Digimarc MediaBridge, explains the basic of its digital watermarking technology and shows how it seamlessly transports readers from a paper page to a Web page.

View the Paper

Synchronization Techniques

Estimating Synchronization Signal Phase

To read a watermark from printed images requires that the watermarking system read correctly after affine distortions. One way to recover from affine distortions is to add a synchronization signal in the Fourier frequency domain and use this synchronization signal to estimate the applied affine distortion.

View the Paper

Watermarking Re-synchronization using Log-Polar Mapping of Image Autocorrelation

Many watermarking algorithms embed the watermark into the image as contiguous non-overlapping tiles. This tiling structure forms an implicit synchronization template that can be revealed through autocorrelation.

View the Paper

Communication Theory and QIM

Quantizer Characteristics Important for Quantization Index Modulation

Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) has been shown to be a promising method of digital watermarking.

View the Paper

Host Aware Spread Spectrum Watermark Embedding Techniques

This paper explores techniques that involve the use of the embedder's knowledge of the cover work to help determine the watermark signal to be added to it.

View the Paper

New Wrinkle in Dirty Paper Techniques

The many recent publications that focus upon watermarking with side information at the embedder emphasize the fact that this side information can be used to improve practical capacity.

View the Paper

Comparative Performance of Watermarking using Mary Modulation with Binary Schemes Employing Error Correction Coding

A common application of digital watermarking is to encode a small packet of information in an image, such as some form of identification that can be represented as a bit string.

View the Paper

Fragile Techniques

Wavelet-based Image Compression and Content Authentication

In the digital information age, digital content (audio, image, and video) can be easily copied, manipulated, and distributed.

View the Paper

Human Visual Systems

Adaptive Color Watermarking

In digital watermarking, a major aim is to insert the maximum possible watermark signal while minimizing visibility.

View the Paper

Digital Watermarking using Improved Human Visual System Model

In digital watermarking, one aim is to insert the maximum possible watermark signal without significantly affecting image quality.

View the Paper

Watermarking Spot Colors

Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK).

View the Paper

Content-based Digital Watermarking using Contrast and Directionality

Human visual systems (HVS) models have been used in digital watermarking to minimize the visual effects of the watermark while increasing the strength of watermark.

View the Paper

Reversible Techniques

Wavelet-Based Reversible Watermarking

In the digital information age, digital content (audio, image, and video) can be easily copied, manipulated, and distributed.

View the Paper

High Capacity Reversible Watermarking

A high-capacity, data-hiding algorithm that lets the user restore the original host image after retrieving the hidden data is presented in this paper.

View the Paper

Reversible Watermarking by Difference Expansion of a Generalized Integer Transform

A reversible watermarking algorithm with very high data hiding capacity has been developed for color images.

View the Paper

Reversible Watermarking by Difference Expansion

Different from other types of digital watermarks, a reversible watermark has a special feature that the original digital content can be completely restored.

View the Paper

Reversible Watermarking by Difference Expansion of Triplets

A new reversible watermarking algorithm based on difference expansion of colored images has been developed.

View the Paper

Reversible Watermarking by Difference Expansion of Quads

A reversible watermarking algorithm with very high data hiding capacity has been developed for colored images.

View the Paper

Text Watermarking

Text Watermarking

In this paper, we propose a new method for watermarking electronic text documents that contain justified paragraphs and irregular line spacing.

View the Paper

Video and Compressed Domain

Digital Watermarking of Low Bit-Rate Advanced Simple Profile MPEG-4 Compressed Video

A novel MPEG-4 compressed domain video watermarking method is proposed and its performance is studied a video bit rates ranging from 128 to 768 kb/s.

View the Paper

MPEG4 Compressed Video

This paper presents a novel watermarking method for low bit-rate video that is compressed according to the Advanced Simple Profile of MPEG-4.

View the Paper

Evaluation of Watermarking Low Bit-rate MPEG-4 Bit Streams

A novel watermarking algorithm for watermarking low bit-rate MPEG-4 compressed video is developed and evaluated in this paper.

View the Paper